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Grammar Languages

Noun and Cases

In this article, we will be exploring kiLiki noun and noun cases. Like Latin, Russian, Tamil or Telugu, KiLiKi is an inflecting language, where nouns are modified with case markers. In kiLiki, these cases are appended to a noun’s end with a hyphen mark.

Before getting inside the cases and case markers for nouns, first let us revisit how to add a plural marker to a noun.

Image 1 : Plural Marker

In the example in Image 1, thu means ‘word’ in singular. When the click symbol *kle is added ‘word’ becomes ‘words’. This is a universal rule for all nouns in kiLiki. It does not matter if the noun is abstract like ‘love’ or ‘wisdom’. Any noun can be converted to its plural by adding the symbol *kle.

Let us explore a few kiLiki nouns with plural markers.

Image 2 : Nouns with Plurals

As you can see in Image 2, a few of these words may be grammatically incorrect in other languages. They are perfectly correct formations in kiLiki.

Noun Rule 1 : Use the click *kle as the plural marker. It can be added at the end of any noun to denote it in its plural form.
No Exceptions

Noun Inflections

In languages that have very few inflection, such as English, we have prepositions such as in, from, to, and so on that appear before a noun to tell the role of the noun in that sentence. In kiLiki, we have a minimal set of inflections where noun cases are added to the end of the noun to denote the role of the noun in the sentence.

We have nine different types of cases and associated case markers in kiLiki. The following list gives you the noun cases in a nutshell.

Case 1 : Nominative (no marker) bavgari is dog
Case 2 : Accusative (-ya) min laakeeni nim-ya is I like you.
Case 3 : Genetive (-ta) pamaa-ta linkit is grandmother’s phone.
Case 4 : Ablative Separation (-fae) hee-fae is from air.
: Ablative Origin (-chafae) delhi-chafae is from Delhi.
Case 5 : Instrumental (-jo) japijoo-jo is with knife.
Case 6 : Dative To (-chatae) brisbaen-chatae is to Brisbane.
: Dative For (-fatae) nim-fatae is for you.
Case 7 : Place Locative (-chae) nyuyaark-chae is in NewYork
Case 8 : Time Locative (-tikae) maemae-tikae is in the evening.
Case 9 : Vocative (-hoa) fen-hoa is Hey friend!

In the following sections, let us look at what each of these cases mean in detail.

Case 1 : Nominative

Nominative nouns do not have any case markers. The nouns appear as they are and denote the subject of a sentence.

yeeti is tree
zemil is email
saalpupu is salt

As you see in the examples above, the kiLiki words appear as they are without any change.

Case 2 : Accusative ‘-ya’

The subject in a sentence will be denoted by a nominative without adding any case suffix. The object of a sentence on which the action is performed is the accusative. A noun can be made an accusative by adding ‘-ya‘ marker after the noun.

Image 3 : I like you.

In the above example in Image 3, min is the nominative noun without any case marker. laakeeni is the verb ‘like’ and the action is performed on the object nim and to convert nim to its accusative form, we add the accusative market ‘-ya‘ and make it nim-ya

This gives us the flexibility to change the order of these words and not change the meaning.

min laakeeni nim-ya
min nim-ya laakeeni
nim-ya laakeeni min
nim-ya min laakeeni
laakeeni min nim-ya
laakeeni nim-ya min

All of the above sentences mean ‘I like you’ and are grammatically correct. Where as in English ‘I like you’ and ‘you like I’ are two different sentences and the later is grammatically incorrect.

We have a few additional variations of the accusative case. We will look at those variations later.

Case 3 : Genetive ‘-ta’

When we want to tell that one object belongs to another object, we use a Genetive Possessive Marker ‘-ta‘. This is equivalent to converting the English noun ‘sister’ to its possessive form ‘sister’s’ by adding a ‘s at end of the noun.

jamgari is the Nominal form (camel)
jamgari-ta is the Genetive Possessive form (camel’s)

So, jamgari-ta thae means camel’s head

min-ta means my
nim-ta means your
thaa-ta means his, her or its

Image 4 : My dog is tasting you

In the example in Image 4, we can see how min(I) is converted to its possessive form min-ta(my).

Similar to accusative, we have different variations of the Genetive case which we will explore at a later stage.

Case 4 : Ablative ‘-fae’ & ‘-chafae’

When an object separates from another object, we can denote it with an Ablative Separation Marker ‘-fae‘.

benee is sea
benee-fae is (separation) from sea

thaa sheenkaani-de saal-ya benee-fae literally means ‘she/he is making salt from sea

The ‘-fae‘ marker is used only in the sense of separating one from the other.

When we want tell that an object originates from another object like ‘The cake is from London’, we use another variation called the Ablative Origin Marker ‘-chafae‘.

So, thaa luni indibaa-chafae means ‘He/She is from India

We have a few other such variations of the Ablative for us to explore later.

Case 5 : Instrumental ‘-jo’

When we want to denote that an action is performed with another object(instrument), we can use the Instrumental Means Marker ‘-jo‘.

japijoo is knife
japijoo-jo is with knife

Image 5 : She is cutting the fruit with a knife

In the above examples you can see how these markers work together.

Thaa is she (nominative without any case marker)
japini-de is cutting (cut with –de the present tense marker)
loochi-ya is fruit (accusative with –ya marker)
The marker –ya tells us that the fruit is being cut as the accusative marker tells which noun the action is being performed on.
japijoo-jo is with knife (Instrumental with –jo marker)
The marker -jo tells us that the knife is the instrument used to perform the action.

Case 6 : Dative ‘-chatae’ and ‘-fatae’

When we want to denote that an action by one object is happening to another object we use the Dative Destination Marker
-chatae‘.

soamaalibaa is Somalia
soamaalibaa-chatae is to Somalia

Image 6 : From India to Russia

We use the Ablative Origin marker ‘-chafae‘ to denote from and Dative Destination Marker ‘-chatae‘ to denote to. You can remember both these markers by knowing that cha is the symbol for location. fae to denote from and tae to denote to.

When we want to denote that an action is performed by an one object for another object, we use the Dative Agent Marker
‘-fatae‘.

nim is you
nim-fatae is for you

min sheenkaani-ga dhiki-ya nim-fatae
is I made this for you.

It is easy to remember when to use ‘-chatae‘ and when to use ‘-fatae‘. When the object it attaches becomes the destination like ‘I gave it to you‘ or ‘I came to Hyderabad‘ we use ‘-chatae‘.

When the object it attached to is for which the action is done, like ‘We won it for Australia‘ or ‘This world is for us‘ we use
‘-fatae‘.

Case 7 : Place Locative ‘-chae’

When we want to denote where an action is happening we use the Place Locative (in) Marker ‘-chae‘.

landan is London
landan-chae is in London

Image 7 : His aunt lives in Chile.

min-ta laa-chae is in my heart
papaa-ta naa-chae is in grandfather’s eye

There are different variations of the place locative to say different relative positions like
inside(-thoochae),
outside(-poochae),
above (-meechae),
below (-keechae)
and a few more.

We will see the complete list later. Just remember that all Place Locatives end in ‘chae‘ sound.

Case 8 : Time Locative ‘-tikae’

When we want to denote when an action is happening to the object, we use the Time Locative (in) Marker ‘-tikae‘.

raerae is morning
raerae-tikae is in the morning

Image 8 : Mom’s friend will come in the evening.

Let us breakdown the words and markers in the above sentence.

maa is mother
maa-ta is mother’s
fen is friend
hoofaani is come
hoofaani-fu is will come
maemae is evening
maemae-tikae is in the evening

In the above image try to read and understand what Meenaa is saying to someone in the call and why Loki is giving that expression.

Nope. We are not going to explain that here. Check out the dictionary. Avoid the markers and search for the nouns or verbs in the dictionary to figure out what Meena might be talking.

Case 9 : Vocative ‘-hoa’

When we want to address an object and talk to the object, we use the Vocative Marker ‘-hoa‘. It does not matter if the object has life or not. It can be a person, animal, insect, rock, ocean, wisdom, paper cup, sky, robot, flying cars or anything. We have the licence to talk to almost anything.

yeeti is tree
yeeti-hoa is oh tree!

thaan is husband
thaan-hoa is oh husband!

siri is apple’s siri
siri-hoa is hey siri!

laelae is flower
laelae-hoa is hey flower!

fen is friend
fen-hoa is hey friend!

Saanaelaalaa! You have now learned the nine noun cases in KiLiKi.

As mentioned in the sections above, most of these cases have minor variations. We will look at them in detail in the upcoming articles.

Try using these phrases and build simple sentences. We will look at sentence structures and word ordering soon.

fen-hoa!
bazaa.

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